Pamunkey -- Virginia State Soil

Photograph of a close-up of a field of corn. The corn has tasseled and the ears are visible.

Photograph of the profile of a typifying pedon of Pamunkey soil series.

Pamunkey Soil Profile

Surface layer: dark brown fine sandy loam
Subsoil - upper: yellowish red clay loam
Subsoil - lower: yellowish red sandy loam
Substratum: yellowish brown and reddish brown, stratified sand and gravel
Pamunkey soils formed in stream terrace sediments in the James River drainage basin of Virginia. These sediments were from every physiographic province in the Virginia Common-wealth. The farm where the Pamunkey soils were first identified is near Jamestown, Virginia. It is considered to be the oldest tilled farm in the United States. The Jamestown historic farm is now in a conservancy program for agricultural use by James City County.

It is very likely that the first settlers at Jamestown were able to survive because of the food they produced on these fertile soils. The Pamunkey Tribe and other Indian Tribes were the first people to recognize the natural ability of this soil to produce food. In recent years these soils have produced record yields of corn and wheat.

Small scale map of Virginia showing distribution of Pamunkey soil series.

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